Acquisition of citizenship in the EU EU27 Member States granted citizenship to around 810 000 persons in 2010

20-11-2012 — /europawire.eu/ — In 2010, 810 500 persons acquired citizenship1 of an EU27 Member State. The highest number of citizenships were granted by the United Kingdom(195 000 persons), France (143 000), Spain (124 000) and Germany (105 000) which together accounted for 70% of all citizenships granted by the EU27 Member States. Compared with 2009, the number of acquisitions rose by 4% in the EU27 in 2010, mainly due to an increase in the number of citizenships granted by Spain.

The new citizens in the EU27 in 2010 came from Africa (29% of the total number of citizenships acquired), Asia (23%), non-EU27 Europe (19%),North and South America (19%), another EU27 Member State (9%) and Oceania (1%).

These data on the acquisition of citizenship of the EU27 Member States are taken from a report2 issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

Highest number of citizenships granted per 1000 inhabitants in Luxembourg, Sweden, Belgium and the United Kingdom

When compared with the total population of each Member State, the highest rates of citizenship granted were recorded in Luxembourg (8.6 citizenships granted per 1 000 inhabitants), Sweden (3.5), Belgium (3.2) and the United Kingdom (3.1). Twelve Member States granted less than one citizenship per 1 000 inhabitants. On average, 1.6 citizenships were granted per 1 000 inhabitants in the EU27.

The number of citizenships granted can also be related to the number of resident foreigners i.e. non-nationals resident in the Member State. The highest rates were registered in Portugal (5.6 citizenships granted per 100 resident foreigners), Poland (5.0), Sweden (4.9), the United Kingdom(4.6) and Malta (4.5), and the lowest in the Czech Republic (0.3), Slovakia (0.4) and Lithuania (0.5). On average, 2.4 citizenships were granted per 100 resident foreigners in the EU27.

Highest numbers of citizenships in the EU27 acquired by Moroccans, Turks, Ecuadorians and Indians

In 2010, the largest groups that acquired citizenship of an EU27 Member State were citizens of Morocco (67 000 persons), Turkey (49 900),Ecuador (45 200), India (34 700) and Colombia (27 500). Among the Member States with the highest total number of citizenships acquired, the largest groups in the United Kingdom were Indians (15% of total citizenships acquired) and Pakistanis (11%), in France, they were Moroccans(19% of total citizenships acquired) and Algerians (15%), in Spain, they were Ecuadorians (35%) and Colombians (19%) and in Germany they were Turks (25%).

In some Member States, a large part of the citizenships was granted to citizens from only one country. The Member States with the highest concentrations were Hungary (65% from Romania) and Greece (65% from Albania). In Latvia and Estonia, 96% and 91% respectively of the new citizens were recognised non-citizens3.

Acquisition of citizenship in the EU27, 2010

Total number of citizenships acquired
in thousands
Citizenships acquired per:
2009 2010 1 000 inhabitants 100 resident foreigners
EU27 776.1 810.5* 1.6 2.4
Belgium 32.8 34.6 3.2 3.1
Bulgaria 9.2 0.9 0.1 :
Czech Republic 1.1 1.1 0.1 0.3
Denmark 6.9 4.0 0.7 2.1
Germany 96.1 104.6 1.3 1.3
Estonia 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.8
Ireland 4.5 6.4 1.4 1.0
Greece 17.0 9.4 0.8 1.8
Spain 79.6 123.7 2.7 1.4
France 135.8 143.3 2.2 3.6
Italy 59.4 65.9 1.1 1.4
Cyprus 4.1 1.9 2.4 3.1
Latvia 3.2 3.7 1.6 0.8
Lithuania 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5
Luxembourg 4.0 4.3 8.6 1.9
Hungary 5.8 6.1 0.6 2.9
Malta 0.8 0.9 2.3 4.5
Netherlands 29.8 26.3 1.6 4.0
Austria 8.0 6.1 0.7 0.9
Poland 2.5 2.9 0.1 5.0
Portugal 25.6 21.8 2.0 5.6
Romania 9.4 : : :
Slovenia 1.8 1.8 0.9 2.2
Slovakia 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.4
Finland 3.4 4.3 0.8 2.2
Sweden 29.5 32.5 3.5 4.9
United Kingdom 203.6 194.8 3.1 4.6
Iceland 0.7 0.5 1.4 3.4
Liechtenstein 0.1 0.1 2.6 :
Norway 11.4 11.6 2.4 3.5
Switzerland 43.4 39.3 5.0 2.5
Croatia 5.3 3.3 0.7 :
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0.8 1.2 0.6 :
Turkey 8.1 9.5 0.1 :

* Eurostat estimate

: Data not available

Largest groups acquiring citizenship in the EU27 Member States, 2010

Largest group Second largest group Third largest group Fourth largest group
Previous citizens of % Previous citizens of % Previous citizens of % Previous citizens of %
EU27 Morocco 8.3 Turkey 6.2 Ecuador 5.6 India 4.3
BE Morocco 21.3 Italy 8.2 Turkey 8.0 Russia 4.7
BG Former Yug. Rep. of Macedonia 49.4 Moldova 17.4 Russia 8.9 Serbia 7.0
CZ Ukraine 36.1 Slovakia 12.9 Russia 6.8 Poland 5.8
DK Iraq 14.3 Afghanistan 12.4 Stateless* 7.0 Turkey 6.1
DE Turkey 25.1 Iraq 5.0 Russia 4.0 Poland 3.7
EE Recognised non-citizen3 91.2 Russia 6.3 Ukraine 1.4 Belarus 0.3
IE Nigeria 15.8 Philippines 9.9 India 6.9 South Africa 5.4
EL Albania 64.5 Georgia 8.1 Russia 6.5 Armenia 2.1
ES Ecuador 34.8 Colombia 19.4 Morocco 8.7 Peru 6.7
FR Morocco 19.3 Algeria 14.6 Tunisia 5.9 Turkey 5.9
IT Morocco 17.2 Albania 13.8 Romania 7.1 Peru 3.4
CY Greece 18.6 United Kingdom 11.7 South Africa 11.6 Russia 9.9
LV Recognised non-citizen3 96.1 Russia 1.8 Ukraine 0.9 Belarus 0.3
LT Stateless* 52.5 Russia 20.4 Ukraine 9.9 Belarus 7.2
LU Portugal 31.3 Italy 15.4 France 7.9 Germany 7.7
HU Romania 64.7 Serbia & Montenegro** 11.8 Ukraine 10.6 Belarus 2.0
MT Australia 43.6 United Kingdom 10.7 Canada 5.8 United States 5.3
NL Morocco 22.1 Turkey 19.0 Suriname 3.7 China 1.9
AT Bosnia & Herzegovina 20.8 Turkey 15.3 Serbia 13.5 Croatia 7.4
PL Ukraine 33.9 Belarus 14.3 Russia 7.3 Armenia 3.5
PT Brazil 18.4 Cape Verde 18.3 Moldova 12.3 Angola 9.0
RO : : : :
SI Bosnia & Herzegovina 30.7 Serbia 11.5 Italy 11.2 Former Yug. Rep. of Macedonia 10.7
SK Serbia 23.8 Czech Republic 18.8 Ukraine 18.4 Vietnam 6.3
FI Russia 44.4 Estonia 5.6 Iran 3.2 Turkey 3.0
SE Iraq 13.5 Finland 9.2 Poland 4.6 Thailand 4.4
UK India 15.1 Pakistan 11.3 Philippines 4.8 Bangladesh 4.1
IS Philippines 14.9 Poland 11.1 Vietnam 8.7 Thailand 6.2
LI Switzerland 37.9 Austria 14.7 Germany 10.5 Turkey 10.5
NO Somalia 12.9 Iraq 11.4 Afghanistan 9.0 Russia 5.8
CH Serbia 17.4 Italy 10.5 Germany 9.2 Portugal 5.6
HR Bosnia & Herzegovina 38.4 Australia 8.4 Serbia 6.9 Argentina 5.9
MK Serbia 30.6 Albania 25.1 Turkey 4.0 Croatia 3.8

* A stateless person is someone who is not recognized as a citizen of any State

** Data refer to Serbia & Montenegro, which existed between 2003 and 2006

: Data not available

Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), the Czech Republic (CZ), Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), Estonia (EE), Ireland (IE), Greece (EL), Spain (ES), France (FR), Italy (IT), Cyprus (CY), Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Luxembourg (LU), Hungary (HU), Malta (MT), the Netherlands (NL), Austria (AT), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovenia (SI), Slovakia (SK), Finland (FI), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK).

Iceland (IS), Liechtenstein (LI), Norway (NO), Switzerland (CH), Croatia (HR) and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MK).

  • Citizenship is the legal bond between an individual and a state, acquired by birth, naturalisation or other means according to national legislation. Naturalisation is the process by which a state grants its citizenship through a formal act on the application of the individual concerned. Other ways of granting citizenship may include spouses of nationals, minors adopted by nationals and descendants of nationals born abroad returning to the country of origin of their ancestors.

2. Eurostat, Statistics in Focus, 45/2012 “EU Member states granted citizenship to more than 800 000 persons in 2010”, available free of charge in pdf format on the Eurostat web site.

3. A majority of these persons were citizens of the former Soviet Union. A recognised non-citizen is a person who is neither a citizen of the reporting country nor of any other country, and who has established links to the reporting country which include some but not all rights and obligations of full citizenship.

Issued by: Eurostat Press Office

Louise CORSELLI-NORDBLAD

Tel: +352-4301-33 444

eurostat-pressoffice@ec.europa.eu

For further information on the data:

Fabio SARTORI

Tel: +352-4301-34 727

fabio.sartori@ec.europa.eu

Eurostat press releases on the internet: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

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